Dynamics of Ocean
Currents and Fronts
Inverted Echo Sounders (IES/PIES/CPIES)
IESs have been used to monitor oceanic fronts since the 1970s after Tom Rossby first introduced the concept of using travel time variations to monitor the depth of the main thermocline. Since then IESs have been successfully deployed around the world by several different investigators to study major oceanic fronts. (Click here for IES Recovery Statistics.)
Our engineering / research group has been directly involved in more than 25 years of development and field experience with IESs. Following are a list of milestones in the development of IESs and interpretation of the measurements.
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